Rice University

Shared Equipment Authority

Spectrometers

Spectrometer: PHI Quantera XPS

XPS is the most widely used surface analysis technique because of its relative simplicity in use and data interpretation. The sample is irradiated with mono-energetic X-rays causing photoelectrons to be emitted from the sample surface. An electron energy analyzer determines the binding energy of the photoelectrons. From the binding energy and intensity of a photoelectron peak, the elemental identity, chemical state, and quantity of an element are determined.